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Halbmond
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Eddie
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 08, 2011 5:42 am    Post subject: Halbmond  Reply with quote

Hello Chaps!
I am looking for details and images of the Bugle used by British Light Infantry during the Napoleonic period.
I came across an excellent article on the development of the Bugle on the US "Tapsbugler" website by Jari Villaneuva - I quote

"One of the first bugles adopted for military use was a large semicircular bugle horn with a leather harness.This is the Hanoverian Halbmond(half moon)"



"The instrument was made of copper and the straps which formed a "T" shape made it possible to carry the instrument .According to Anthony Baines,the Halbmondblaser appears in Hanoverian records of 1758 in association with a mixed corps of Light Troops organized by Captain von Scheiter.......The instrument was adopted by the English Light Dragoons in 1764,by the Grenadier Guards in 1772 and later by the artillery and light infantry."

This instrument is the familiar "Skinny stringed bugle" represented on the Buglehorn badge sported by the Rifles and Light Infantry of our period -
as shown on the cover of Trumpet Majors Hydes' Trumpet and Bugle Horn Preceptor of 1799.




How close is that to the Buglehorn badge?

Was this instrument what they were running around with in those early days at Shornecliffe?

It does not seem robust enough for use in the field and indeed the Bugle developed later with the tubing coiled - initially single wound and then more compacted and double wound by the Crimea - the pattern still used in the British Army today.

If this has already been mentioned on this forum before I apologise but I could not find "Halbmond" in the search facility.

I will attach a few more early Bugle images later  - and I would be interested to see posted any images of British Bugles dating up to 1855.
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OJM
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 08, 2011 1:08 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Halbmonds were also used by the Hessian Jägers during the AWI, and by Prussian, Dutch, Danish-Norwegian and Swedish Jägers and lights during the Napoleonic Wars, and the Danish-Norwegian light infantry was founded by Hessians and Hanoverians from 1785 onwards, so the links might be closer than one thinks.

As a digression, you can have a look at our horn here:
http://www.onsoske-compagni.no/halvmaanehornet.htm

If you scroll way down to the bottom, there's mp3s of all the signals from the 1811 Danish-Norwegian regimental light company regulations.

Halbmonds, along with "french" buglehorns are still used for traditional brass bands and hunting in Germany, so they are available off the shelf.
Among others:
http://www.kuehnl-hoyer.de/eng/popup/jagdhoerner/parforce_eng.html

I would be very interested to know the reasoning for the British army discarding these horns for bugles before the Napoleonic Wars began in earnest, when so many other armies stuck to them.
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Eddie
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2011 6:39 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you Ola
Its very useful to have an International perspective on this one - I had no idea that Halbmonds were still being made and had never even heard the name or seen a picture of one  - though of course I was familiar with the "skinny" Bugle horn badge. A Hanoverian musical instrument symbolizing the very birth of the British Light Infantry arm !
I do not know why the British abandoned them in favour of the Bugle -I had thought Halbmonds looked a bit awkward to carry and liable to get bent for "field" use  - yet other armies continued to use them. I wonder if we were influenced by the French coiled Bugles/"Clairons"?
Early British Bugles were apparently large,single coiled and large belled but I get the impression there was no general issue to the whole Army so perhaps each unit acquired its own?
There seem to be very few images of early British Bugles and few surviving examples - I will post some soon.
I have listened to some of the mp3 sound bites you linked - the ones I could translate !  - and some seem strangely familiar - the "Chageer"  sounds a bit like the British "Charge " combined with "March"  and the "Holdt"  a bit like our "Halt". I could not get all the music notation to down load.
Great website page by the way.
You say the Danish/Norwegian Light Infantry was founded  by the Hanoverians ? I wonder.....
De Rottenburg was a German officer who was a great influence on the development of British Lights and his manual includes field bugle calls  which are not in Trumpet Major Hydes 1799 collection( which was authorised by the Duke of York). Perhaps De Rottenburg introduced or adapted existing Hanoverian calls into the British Army????
Many Napoleonic bugle calls continued in use unchanged through the Victorian period and some survived in field use into the First World war.
"Extend" and "Close" as shown by De Rottenburg were still being sounded by Royal Marine buglers in the 1950 s. I presume the Buglers of the present day Rifles still use "Assembly". The most famous of all  British Napoleonic calls "2nd Post" is still heard - virtually unchanged  - as "Last Post" today.
So while this topic will no doubt bore the chaps who bang away with Rifles - don't forget the Buglers were out in the skirmish line too - and there is history preserved in them there calls!
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Gay the files of scarlet follow:
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Ben Townsend
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2011 7:38 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Not boring at all Eddie, enjoying your posts. I was waiting for one of our erstwhile buglers to pitch in (we have three) though the youngest and present bugler is only ten (?).
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John Waller
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2011 7:49 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

ben wrote:
the youngest and present bugler is only ten (?).


And very good he is..
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Eddie
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2011 2:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Yes indeed it was a real pleasure to see and hear your young Bugler out there amongst the Greens at Cosmeston, He was obviously enjoying it too . Well done indeed.
I saw the 68th deploying to the bugle at Beamish a few months back and it certainly evokes the LI spirit and adds colour to the whole display.
Good stuff Buglers !

Here are a few images  that I have been able to find of period bugles:




Guards Bugler(after B Clayton)  Large single wound copper and brass bugle







From Pynes camp scenes 1803  - large elongated single wound(?)  bugle this looks like a French"Clairon d'Ordannance" still used today - and frequently for sale on Ebay France





Bugle 1811 Met Museum New York  - this is attributed to an officer of the 104th regt but made in hallmarked silver is hardly lilkely to be an issue bugle !  14 3/4" long with 7" bell. Single wound.


 

The bugle on which Trumpeter Edwards Life Guards  sounded the charge of the Union Brigade at Waterloo.  This is more like it  - copper and brass, single wound. I am making enquiries about this one with the Houshold cavalry museum.   Cavalry traditionally have Trumpets for barrack and camp calls and bugles to sound "Field" calls.  Kings Troop RHA still do this on their musical ride displays.





This Bugle is on the tapsbugler site and is stated to be 1811. It is a double wound copper and brass bugle of the type usually associated with the Crimean period onwards.I have seen similar referred to as an "1855  pattern British Duty Bugle" and is the same type as used to this day. Not sure of the provenance of this one so I will contact our American friends to elucidate.

hmmmm   "Elucidate" -  not  a bad word to finish on  - well help me compete with  the intellectuals who lurk in the darkest recesses of this forum!  

Anybody got any other contemporary images of British bugles?  I think we can rule out Simkin and Caton Woodville thanks!
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High the screaming Fife replies,
Gay the files of scarlet follow:
Woman bore me, I will rise"
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Paul Durrant
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2011 5:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

From our archives:

Article by Willoughby-Verner in Rifle Brigade Chronicles 1898, pp207-9

"Regimental Medals and Trophies

A Bugle-horn of the 95th Rifles.
During the past year a very valuable addition has been made to the collection of Regimental Trophies in the shape of one of the original horns used by the Rifle Corps in its early days.
The thanks of the Regiment are due to Captains Bentinck and Annesley for scuring this valuable memento of the 95th Rifles for the Mess of the 1st Battalion... It is made of an ordinary cows horn and is mounted in silver. On the shield in its centre is inscribed-
                       1st
                  Company,
                      1804,
             95th Rifle Battalion
Below this is engraved a bugle-horn of much the same shape as the one now described, but without a bell mouth. The horn measures 17 inches along the curve, the bell-mouth being 3.25 inches in diametere; the weight is just under 12 ounces.
Whether this horn was ever actually used as a buglehorn or not it is hard to say. It is, in shape, very much like the powderhorns in use in the Regiment on its first formation, and opinions differ as to whether this horn was a bugle-horn either for use, or as a badge of office to be worn by the bugler, or simply one of the old powder horns mounted as a memento of the early days of the Regiment....
...The bugle, as first used by the British Army, was a curved horn of metal of the shape so well known in the regimental badge. Later on, for the sake of portability, it was given a bend, the bugle with one turn being the outcome of this. About 1840 a bugle with two turns was adopted, much the same as that at present in use.
Trumpet and bugle sounds were adopted throughout the army in the year 1804, the date engraved on the buglehorn in question. In 1815, a book for regulating the signals for Light Infantry and Rifle Regiments was published, entitled, "The Bugle-horn Major's Companion".
...The term 'bugler' was not used in the army at this period (1800), and all printed or written states and returns refer to 'drummers'. Colonel Coote manningham, however in his Regulations for the Rifle Corps in 1800 invariably mentions the word 'bugler' so it evidently was in use in the Regiment from its first formation...
..In old prints of the Rifle Corps, the Buglers are depicted with Bugle-Horns in their hands of the shappe of the one now owned by the 1st battalion, and I remember, some fifteen years ago, copying such a picture for the late Sir William Cope, this copy being now in the Bramshill collection of Regimental costumes."


Above mentioned horn currently (2008) in RGJ Museum Winchester
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Ben Townsend
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PostPosted: Thu Jun 09, 2011 7:25 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote




Detail of a watercolour of the Rifle company of the 3/60th by J Ekstein, "painted on the spot", Guadeloupe 1810.

RGJ, Winchester.
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Eddie
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PostPosted: Fri Jun 10, 2011 8:55 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks Paul and Ben
Re "Regimental Trophies"

This horn is literally just that - a cow horn with a mouthpiece - the original hunting horn/Jagdhorn - I have never tried to play one but I would doubt you get a regulated scale of defined notes from it but if you could-  how could you get the same notes on other "horns" within the same unit??  
Its all very well hearing a  mournful blast and saying "Hark! The horn of Gondor! Boromir calls for aid!"
How can you convey " 2nd batt 95th - 3rd company- extend - to the left - double time - advance and fire"   Which can be done with a bugle  - or indeed a Halbmond as Ola has shown.
I cannot see that such a horn is a signalling instrument to the extent needed at that time.
It is interesting to note that the image of the cow horn became the later  Buglehorn badge as still sported by the modern day rifles.



as opposed to the original Halbmond:




Both images did I think  co-exist in our period as the cowhorn stlyle does appear on officers' turnbacks and epaulettes.

BUGLE MAJORS COMPANION 1815  Anyone got a copy? Barry Turnbull  Burchmore ( formerly 2nd Queens now back in Oz) gave me some 1815 calls but I don't know if they are one and the same.

The term" Bugler"  - I found this quote from Sir John Moore in an article called " The story of the Buglehorn" on the World Military band site:

"At present Buglers are not allowed upon the establishmen of regiments, so light companies have drums,the same as the battalion.The buglers ,which many have,are by sufference,not by order"

And finally  that Bugler picture from the RGJ  museum - what  a great find - the bugle has a very large bell - what a sound! And yes  - is he carrying a rifle ?
There is a print by Thomas Rowlandson of Riflemen skirmishing behind rocks and in the foreground is a Bugler avec rifle.  Makes sense - he is trotting along at the Company  commanders heels and can act as cover man?

Oh yes  "they also serve who only stand and toot"  - or something.
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High the screaming Fife replies,
Gay the files of scarlet follow:
Woman bore me, I will rise"
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Paul Durrant
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 11, 2011 9:35 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Eddie wrote:

From Pynes camp scenes 1803  - large elongated single wound(?)  bugle this looks like a French"Clairon d'Ordannance" still used today - and frequently for sale on Ebay France


From the relief on Coote Manningham's tomb, RGJ Museum, Winchester (2008)
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OJM
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 12, 2011 4:46 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hello again!

I can translate all the names of the signals if you guys find it interesting, wouldn't want to clutter the thread up since it's not immediately relevant.

"Chageer" is actually "Open fire". Høire = right, Venstre = left.

Regarding the Hanoverians and Hessians in Danish-Norwegian service: a sept of the Hessian counts were married into the Danish royal family, and did a quite grand "jobs for the boys" scheme of patronage for various german officers looking for greener pastures after the end of the Frederician wars and the American campaign.
Some skilled and experienced both from America and the continental wars, others not able to hack it in the service of the bigger powers.

The most famous is probably this guy:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_von_Ewald
who might be of interest to those of you with an interest in light regulations and military theory of the period.

Regarding the number of signals needed to efficiently transmit complex orders: from what I've seen in our little corner of Europe, the first regulations from around 1785-1790 were criticised for having way too many detailed signals, and the numbers of signals were reduced with each new regulation, the 1811 one being the peak of simplicity (and meant for line light companies, so somewhat smaller in scope in general) before peacetime theoreticians started to reinvent the wheel after 1820.

One technique used here was to have slight tuning(correct term?) differences in the horns of the right wing, left wing and centre, all the way up to the battalion hornist using a slightly different model that seems to have had vents somewhat like modern brass instruments to be able to differ the tone of signals for various parts of the battalion.

"French horns" also seems to have replaced Halbmonds in some fully Rifle units, due to a larger range of signals, and the line light coys often complained over only having two hornists pr. company, while rifles got three.  

(just to make it clear, all of the above pertains to Denmark-Norway, but seeing as the germanic Jäger concept and community was very international and linked at the time, you never know)

It could be interesting to find out about possible differences or similarities between the 60ths Rifle coys/batts and the 95th when it comes to signals and drill (IMHO, it's hard to study one without looking at the other), as well as the KGL lights.

In my experience, if one gets a glimpse behind the scenes, connections like "Officer 1 from A Regt/country who introduced this novelty attended XX Camp with Officer 2 from B Regt/country who was a protagonist of that novelty five years previously, and they corresponded" often appears.

Having only read the basic stuff on British lights of the period, I've never quite worked out the role/relation of the various influential officers vs. one another, ie. Moore vs. Haldimand and Bouquet (I believe the last two were friends), which could have quite a lot to say when it comes to the evolution of signals and drill.
It might be better suited in a separate thread, but anyone who knows more, please enlighten me!
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Eddie
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 13, 2011 6:24 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

As Ola says there is much common ground in the early development of Light infantry across Europe - German influenced  -  and much of this has been I am sure discussed on other threads.
I was looking at an online version of "Regulations of Riflemen and Light Infantry"  by Gardner 1816 in the USA - only to later find mention of it on a thread here when Blakey said it was based on an 1813 British manual by Neil Campbell 1813:
Referring to Bugle calls Gardner states:
"162. Being intended, however,only as substitutes for the voice,where they cannot reach,these sounds never should be resorted to,except under such a circumstance,as they are liable to be mistaken.They are not to be used therefore when the voice will answer.
163.For this reason,and as the same sound upon a different key or in a different time,is apt to occasion mistakes,they ought to be as few and as simple as possible: and the buglers should be very perfect in these"

Gardner aslo goes on to state that "181......Though these signals have been established in the British Army(taken originally from the German service) it was not thought expediant to transpose or alter them."

To summarise  it  seems to be that Bugle signals were secondary to voice commands ( and whistle?) except where distance was a problem and that they should be few and simple - so in reality in a small scale reenactment battle like ours Bugle calls  would not be necesssary - but I think they do add a "period colour" to a display.

I think in practical terms in the field the Buglers would interpret the more complex calls between each other - and convey the meaning to their own officer. Thus a Light Infantry CO  standing with the reserve could get his Bugler to send a signal to 3rd company far ahead skirmishing - whose Bugler would tell his Captain what was required.
Men in the the firing line could not be expected to listen to the nuances and subtleties of complex bugle calls when they were being shot at by enemy skirmishers!!
Occasionally the Buglers would all sound en masse - as Wheeler of the 51st tells us that on one occasion there were "fifty Buglers sounding the charge"! Wow!
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High the screaming Fife replies,
Gay the files of scarlet follow:
Woman bore me, I will rise"
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The Sarge!
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 13, 2011 8:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

having now obtained the actual original drill manuals of the time, it would appear that the bugle was used instead of the voice on many occassions, with all following the lead company and each company having its own notes to identify them.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 14, 2011 6:09 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Sarge! wrote:
having now obtained the actual original drill manuals of the time, it would appear that the bugle was used instead of the voice on many occassions, with all following the lead company and each company having its own notes to identify them.


Can we have a quote? Any kind of reference? Which manual?
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 14, 2011 6:53 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Firstly you have to take into account that the training done at Shorncliffe set the stone for Light Infantry Drill and that two parts came out of that.

Those armed with Rifles and those armed with muskets.  The movements of both are entirely the same, however there are differences and one of those is how the bugle is used.

I will address the Rifles first, it is likely having explored all the manuals of the time that the following is what the men in Green followed, 'A Course of Drill and Instruction in the Movements and Duties of Light Infantry founded upon The Regulations for the Exercise of Infantry in Close Order and The Regulations for the Exercise of Riflemen and Light Infantry, by a Field Officer 1808', I have confirmed that this is the first book written by Campbell, who is detailed as being the man that wrote it down from Shorncliffe and this is confirmed in the histories and is apart from the introduction, exactly the same as the book his name is attached too for his book in 1813 that was issued to the Portugese.

He states for the bugle sounds the following: 'the advantages to be derived from the use of the bugle in close country, or where men are in extended order, are obvious, if a word of command cannot be heard.  signals and sounds are necessary in various situations; in particularly, where an officer of a light infantry corps finds it necessary to proceed to an eminence at some distance, in order to reconnoitre the adjacent country and his enemy and that advantages may be taken, which depend entirely upon immediate execution, but which, by delay, would be lost, or would even afford an encreased advantage to the enemy.  being intended, however, only as subsitutes for the voice, where the latter cannot reach, they never ought to be resorted to excepting under such circumstances, as they are liable to be misunderstood.'

For those armed with muskets it is clear they were taught the drill as practised by the 52nd Light Infantry and this was written down by Capt John Cross.  He directs the following for the use of bugles at Company Level, 'The moment the order is given, either by word of command or bugle, at the conclusion of the sound the men trails arms and move on as ordered.'  At Battalion level he writes the following, 'Each company in the Battalion has a distinguishing sound and when the commanding officer makes this sound to any company or body which is not extended, such sound is to the person in command of that body, who is to give the necessary words of command instantly.' and adds ' The following sounds will be in addition to those in the regulations; when a body or company is extended and it is wished that it should change its front, the sound to skirmish will be made and afterwards the one, two, or three G's to denote the flank to which the front is changed.'

So in conclusion you can see two different ways the bugle is employed, this in the main comes about as the Rifle Battalions operated as individual Companies and operated on Battalion lines in that small body, where as the Musket Armed Battalions operated as a large body and thus deploy differently and occupy a different role on the field, though trained to the same principles.


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Here's to the Bloody Fighting 95th, the first into the fray and the last out of it!

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